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Typescript Record

Understanding TypeScript Records: A Complete Beginner's Guide

Are you eager to explore TypeScript records? If you’re a JavaScript coder aiming to enhance your abilities and create stronger code, mastering TypeScript records is key. In this detailed guide, we’ll explain what TypeScript records are, how they function, and how you can use them to enhance your development process.

Table of Contents

What is TypeScript Records?

A TypeScript record is a special type that helps you make objects with changing keys and fixed value types. It’s similar to a dictionary in other coding languages, where you match keys to values of a certain type.
Let’s begin with a basic example to explain this idea:

					type Person = {
  name: string;
  age: number;

const john: Person = {
  name: 'John Doe',
  age: 30,


In this example, Person is a type representing an object with name and age properties. When we create an object john of type Person, TypeScript ensures that john has the correct structure (i.e., name is a string and age is a number).

Creating TypeScript Records

Next up, let’s talk about TypeScript records. Records let us make types with changing keys unlike regular object types with set keys.
Here’s how you can create a TypeScript record:

					type Car = Record<string, number>;

const carPrices: Car = {
  sedan: 25000,
  suv: 40000,
  truck: 35000,


In this example, Car is a record type with string keys and number values. We use Record<string, number> to define this structure. Now, we can create an object carPrices where the keys represent different car types, and the values represent their prices.

Working with TypeScript Record Utility Types

In TypeScript, there are helpful utility types that make handling types simpler. Let’s check out some useful ones:
The Partial utility type lets you make all properties of a type optional. This is useful for big objects where not all properties are needed:

					type Book = {
  title: string;
  author: string;
  pages: number;

function updateBook(book: Partial<Book>, newTitle: string): Book {
  return {, title: newTitle };

const myBook: Book = {
  title: 'TypeScript 101',
  author: 'Jane Doe',
  pages: 200,

const updatedBook = updateBook(myBook, 'Advanced TypeScript');


In this example, Partial<Book> in the updateBook function allows us to pass an object with any subset of Book properties.


The Readonly utility type does exactly what it sounds like—it makes all properties of a type read-only:

					type Product = {
  name: string;
  price: number;

const laptop: Readonly<Product> = {
  name: 'Laptop',
  price: 1000,

// Error: Cannot assign to 'price' because it is a read-only property.
laptop.price = 1200;


By using Readonly <Product>, we ensure that its properties cannot be modified once it is initialized.

We’ve already talked about how to use Record to create TypeScript records. But let’s dive a bit deeper. Record is a versatile utility type that helps you define more complex record types:

					type Employee = {
  id: number;
  name: string;
  role: 'developer' | 'manager';

type EmployeeRecord = Record<Employee['role'], Employee>;

const employees: EmployeeRecord = {
  developer: { id: 1, name: 'John Doe', role: 'developer' },
  manager: { id: 2, name: 'Jane Smith', role: 'manager' },


Here, EmployeeRecord is a record type where the keys are the possible roles (developer and manager), and the values are objects conforming to the Employee type.

Advanced Techniques with TypeScript Records

Key of and Lookup Types
In TypeScript, the “key of” operator helps you get the keys of a type. When combined with indexed access types, it becomes a powerful tool for handling records:

					type Person = {
  name: string;
  age: number;
  city: string;

type PersonKeys = keyof Person; // "name" | "age" | "city"

function getProperty<T, K extends keyof T>(obj: T, key: K): T[K] {
  return obj[key];

const person: Person = { name: 'Alice', age: 30, city: 'Wonderland' };
const cityName = getProperty(person, 'city'); // cityName: string


In this example, getProperty is a generic function that retrieves a property from an object based on its key.

Mapped Types
In TypeScript, mapped types let you make new types by changing each property in an existing type:

					type Person = {
  name: string;
  age: number;

type ReadonlyPerson = {
  readonly [K in keyof Person]: Person[K];

const readOnlyAlice: ReadonlyPerson = { name: 'Alice', age: 30 }; = 'Bob'; // Error: Cannot assign to 'name' because it is a read-only property.


Here, ReadonlyPerson is a mapped type that makes all properties of Person read-only.

Using TypeScript Records in Real-World Situations

Now that you know about TypeScript records and how to use them in advanced ways, let’s see how they can be useful in practical situations.
Handling API Data
When you interact with APIs, you might get JSON responses that have different shapes. TypeScript records can assist you in creating types for such responses dynamically:

					type ApiResponse<T> = {
  success: boolean;
  data: T;

type User = {
  id: number;
  name: string;
  email: string;

type UserApiResponse = ApiResponse<User>;

function getUserData(): UserApiResponse {
  // Fetch user data from an API
  return { success: true, data: { id: 1, name: 'John Doe', email: '' } };

const userData = getUserData();
console.log(; // Type-safe access to user data


Here, UserApiResponse is a generic type that represents the structure of an API response containing user data.

Managing Forms and Checking Data

When you’re working on the front end of a website, you often deal with forms where users input information. TypeScript records can be handy for creating structures to organize this data and making sure it meets certain rules:

					type FormData = {
  username: string;
  password: string;
  rememberMe: boolean;

function handleSubmit(formData: FormData): void {
  // Validate form data
  if (formData.username.trim() === '' || formData.password.trim() === '') {
    console.error('Username and password are required');

  // Submit form data
  console.log('Submitting form:', formData);

// Example usage
const formValues = { username: 'john_doe', password: 'secure123', rememberMe: true };


By defining a FormData type, you can ensure that the structure of form data remains consistent throughout your codebase.

Creating Flexible Data Structures

In some cases, you might deal with data structures that change during runtime, meaning you don’t know all the keys in advance. TypeScript records can help manage such situations without much hassle:

					type DynamicData = Record<string, number>;

function processDynamicData(data: DynamicData): void {
  for (const key in data) {
    console.log(`${key}: ${data[key]}`);

// Example usage
const dynamicValues = { apples: 5, bananas: 3, oranges: 8 };


In this example, DynamicData represents a record with string keys and number values, allowing you to process data with dynamic keys.

Best Practices for Using TypeScript Records

1. Use Generics Wisely: Generics help create types that can be reused and adapted easily. When defining record structures for APIs or dynamic data, consider using generics to make your types more flexible.
2. Combine with Interface and Type Aliases: Interfaces and type aliases can enhance TypeScript records by providing meaningful names and documentation. Combining them helps define complex data structures in a clear and organized manner.
3. Ensure Type Safety: TypeScript’s static type checking is powerful for catching errors early in development. Make the most of it to ensure type safety throughout your codebase, reducing the chances of runtime errors.
4. Keep Types DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself): Avoid duplicating type definitions by using utility types like Partial, Readonly, and Pick. Keeping your types DRY makes your codebase more maintainable and easier to understand.
5. Test and Iterate: Test your TypeScript record definitions thoroughly with various scenarios to ensure they behave as expected. Iterate your types based on feedback and evolving requirements to improve their robustness and usability over time.


You’ve learned all about TypeScript records, from the basics to advanced techniques. Now, you’re ready to use TypeScript more effectively.
You’ve learned how to create records and use utility types. Plus, you’ve explored advanced tools like keyof and mapped types. With these skills, you can write stronger and easier-to-maintain TypeScript.

FAQ about TypeScript Records

. What are TypeScript records, and how do they differ from regular objects?

TypeScript records are a type of object that allows for dynamic keys and specific value types. They share similarities with dictionaries in other programming languages. The main difference from regular objects in TypeScript is that records allow you to define types with dynamic keys, whereas regular objects have fixed keys.

2. How do I create a TypeScript record?

You can create a TypeScript record using the Record<Keys, Type> utility type. For example:

					type MyRecord = Record<string, number>;
const myRecord: MyRecord = { key1: 1, key2: 2 };


In this example, MyRecord is a record type with string keys and number values.

3. Can TypeScript records have nested structures?

Yes, TypeScript records can have nested structures just like regular objects. You can define nested record types to represent complex data structures. For example:

					type NestedRecord = Record<string, { value: number }>;
const nestedData: NestedRecord = { key1: { value: 10 }, key2: { value: 20 } };

4. How can I make properties of a TypeScript record optional or read-only?

You can use utility types like Partial and Readonly to modify the properties of a record:

					type PartialRecord = Partial<MyRecord>; // Makes all properties optional
type ReadonlyRecord = Readonly<MyRecord>; // Makes all properties read-only


5. What are some advanced techniques I can use with TypeScript records?

Advanced techniques include using keyof for property access and mapped types for transforming existing types. For example:

					type KeysOfMyRecord = keyof MyRecord; // Gets all keys of MyRecord type
type ReadonlyMyRecord = { readonly [K in keyof MyRecord]: MyRecord[K] }; // Makes all properties of MyRecord read-only


6. How can TypeScript records be useful in real-world scenarios?

  • API Responses: Define types for API responses with varying structures.
  • Form Handling: Define form data structures and enforce validation rules.
  • Dynamic Data Structures: Work with dynamic keys and values in data processing tasks.

7. Are TypeScript records only useful in frontend development?

No, records are useful in both frontend and backend development. They provide type safety and structure definition capabilities that are beneficial in a wide range of development scenarios.

8. Can I nest TypeScript records within other TypeScript types?

Yes, you can nest records within interfaces, type aliases, and other TypeScript types to create complex data structures and maintain type safety throughout your codebase.

9. Are TypeScript records compatible with JavaScript?

While records are a TypeScript-specific feature, they compile down to plain JavaScript objects. This means you can use records in your TypeScript codebase and still generate JavaScript code that works as expected.

10. Where can I find more resources to learn about TypeScript records?

You can explore official TypeScript documentation, online tutorials, and community forums dedicated to TypeScript and JavaScript development for in-depth learning and practical examples related to records